Tundra is the coldest of all the biomes, occurring below the north pole and above the treeline in some large mountain ranges. A layer of permanently frozen subsoil called permafrost exists, consisting mostly of peat and gravel. The harsh living conditions and short growing season account for its low biodiversity. Warming in the tundra enhances decomposition of the peat under anoxic and water logged conditions, producing methane, a very potent greenhouse gas.


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