Historical Development of Agriculture
Learn more about the historical emergence and development of agriculture in this article from Oregon State University.
We are homo sapiens, the hominid species that has inhabited this planet for approximately 180,000 years. Like all other forms of life, we must find, secure, and consume sustenance every day of our lives. For 95% of the time humans have been on Earth, hunting and gathering food was the primary technique of securing sustenance. Hunting and gathering called for a nomadic lifestyle that allowed humans to follow animal herds and take advantage of the seasonal life cycles of edible plants.
Exceptions to this nomadic way of life were more stationary groups of humans who had a fish-based diet. With a constant food source in one location, people could stay and develop their cultures in close proximity to the rivers, lakes, and oceans that contained their source of sustenance.
The beginning of agriculture was in the gradual transition of nomadic people who hunted animals and gathered plants into a more stationary people who planted, harvested, and tended plants and animals in one place. By making the cultivation of crops and domestication of animals the main source of human sustenance, humans took themselves out of the wild food webs of their ancestors. Archaeologists believe that this new stationary agricultural lifestyle arose independently in at least 11 regions around the globe.
Domestication of Plants and Animals
The earliest domestication of plants occurred about 11,500 years ago in the fertile crescent (Figure 14), in what is now Iran. Other regional incubators of plant and animal domestication occurred in Northern and Southern China, New Guinea, India, Africa’s Sahel region and several parts of the Americas.
Many early domestic plants included species that are still grown around the world today, such as wheat, barley, oats, rice, lentils, beans, squash and corn. In each case of plant domestication, humans took seeds from plants that were growing wild and planted them in concentrated areas. Over time, these early farmers observed the benefits of selecting seeds from the most productive individual plants for future planting. This process of artificial selection had many similarities to the process of natural selection explained in the Biodiversity Chapter .
As local human cultures grew into large civilizations and people began traveling long distances, seeds and roots of regional crops were traded, leading to the cultivation of non-native plants in parts of the world that had climate and soil types similar to the plant’s native land (Figure 15).
The earliest evidence of animal domestication for agricultural purposes is that of sheep in western Asia around 10,500 years ago, followed by goats and pigs in the same region. Cattle were domesticated in eastern Africa about 9,000 years ago, and chickens were domesticated in Asia about 8,000 years ago. These and other domesticated animals spread as humans traveled from place to place.
The development of agricultural societies included success as well as set-backs. A settled agricultural lifestyle brought unexpected crises: new human diseases, weather and disease-related crop failures, cycles of bounty and famine, the challenge of food storage, and social tensions over the new division of labor. In fact, there is ample archaeological, anthropological and historical evidence to show that the average nutrition and overall health of humans living in early agricultural societies was significantly lower than that of their hunter-gatherer predecessors.1 Despite this, the near-constant availability of food in agricultural societies triggered a rise in human population densities.
The Green Revolution
Dr. Norman E. Borlaug (1914-2009) known as the 'Father of the Green Revolution', is credited with saving over a billion people from starvation. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 for his work. You can read more about Borlaug in the biography written for his Nobel award.
A trend toward increasing intensification and greater manipulation of food cultivation and animal domestication can be traced through the past several millennia. A notable spike in this development occurred in mid-twentieth century with the so-called 'Green Revolution'. This revolution refers to the period from the 1940s to the late 1960s when the world saw a large increase in crop production, especially in developing countries. These increases were achieved using new high-yield crop varieties, new highly mechanized tools and machines, new irrigation techniques, and technological advances in chemical pesticides, insecticides, and herbicides.
Norman Borlaug is identified as the key figure in bringing about the Green Revolution. Borlaug worked as a forester before getting a Ph.D. in plant genetics and pathology. As a North American, he was greatly influenced by his experiences working in third-world countries. The 'Borlaug Hypothesis' asserts that the only way to prevent deforestation of the planet as the demand for food increases is to substantially increase the yield of crops being grown on already-cultivated land.
Borlaug’s work was central to the development of high-yielding and disease-resistant varieties of wheat, maize and rice. These high-yielding varieties were created using a scientifically-informed method of hybridizing crop strains where each parent strain had different desirable traits. The availability and utilization of these varieties was dependent on the development and intensification of chemical pesticide and fertilizer use, the increased mechanization of crop planting, harvesting, and processing, and an intensified irrigation infrastructure. The result was a remarkable increase in crop yield.
Later in this chapter, we will discuss why an increase in the food supply worldwide does not necessarily produce a decrease in global hunger, and how the relationship between agriculture and human well-being can be distorted by profit-driven motives.
Today, the increased availability of food worldwide through the industrial food system has helped the food supply keep better pace with population growth than in the past. However, there is a vicious circle to this system. When industrial agriculture increases the food supply, human population increases. And when human population increases, the demand increases for more land to grow more food. In this process, more forests are cut down, ecologically important swamps and wetlands are destroyed, animal habitats are degraded, and plant and insect species diversity is reduced. When these plots of land are consolidated into vast tracts, more indigenous people and small farmers are removed from their land, intensifying urban population density and expanse. This means more land is deforested and fragmented. From an ecological perspective, the industrial food system is beginning to look like what biologists would call a parasitoid, a parasite that kills its host.
Parallel Developments in Fishing Technology
The development of fishing techniques in human cultures is similar to that of agriculture's Green Revolution. For most of its existence, fishing took place on a small scale within natural aquatic ecosystems. Fishing boats were dependent on human or wind power, and modest nets and lines were hauled in by hand. Over time, technological developments allowed ships to sail further from their home ports for longer periods of time and catch and preserve more fish to bring back to port.
By the 18th century, European fishing and whaling fleets filled much of the planet’s oceans. Steam-powered fishing boats fueled by coal were introduced in the 1870s. These boats, much larger and stronger than their predecessors, dragged expansive nets over many miles of water, rather than setting them in a fixed location (Figure 16). Steam-power was eventually replaced by diesel and gasoline power, allowing boats to extend their fishing ranges and make more trips in a given period. With the improvements in marine navigation technology and sonar made during World War II, fishing boats could move into even more remote fishing grounds. Today, the largest industrial trawlers can run at over 10,000 horsepower and pull enormous "rock hoppers"--fish nets rigged with heavy rubber wheels that crawl over the bottom of the ocean.
Contemporary industrial fishing activity covers over 55% of the world's oceans. A 2016 report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that nearly 90% of global fish populations are either fully fished or overfished. Like its agricultural counterpart, industrial fishing has become a parasitoid; we are destroying the very resource we rely on for sustenance.
Questions to Consider
- Why are some animals capable of being domesticated and others are not?
- Norman Borlaug was motivated to develop hybridized seed strains in order to increase crop yield and thereby reduce the necessity for further deforestation of the planet. Hybridization has increased crop yield, but has not prevented deforestation. Why do you think Borlaug's goal of preventing deforestation has not been achieved?