The science section noted several human actions that are accelerating the decline of Earth’s biodiversity. Here is a review of some of those mentioned:
- Extensive deforestation primarily for land conversion to agriculture is destroying habitats that nurture the health and diversity of soils, plants, insects, and animals which are necessary for human life.
- Loss of forests due to expanding agriculture, mining, road building, and urbanization is increasing the rate and extent of global climate change, which adds further stress to species survival.
- Human induced habitat fragmentation and animal poaching is amplifying the extinction of plant, insect, and animal species.
- Intended and unintended human introduction of invasive species into natural habitats is breaking down the delicate species balance and diversity of healthy ecosystems.
The Planetary Boundaries chart displayed in the science section (Figure 24) showed that declining biodiversity is today’s most serious threat to sustaining the Earth’s environmental health. The rate of species extinction far exceeds the pace of new plant, insect, and animal speciation that requires tens of thousands of years. The main driver of this extinction rate is the choices human beings are making over land use.
Land use choices influence the well-being of the natural world as well as human society. In the Healing Earth Introduction, you learned that ethics is the study and practice of actions that contribute to the well-being of humans, human societies, and the natural world. Land use choices are moral choices. In this section, we explore the ethical challenges involving biodiversity. We begin by returning to the ethical questions posed in the Kakadu and the Mirrar case study that opened this chapter.
- What ethical challenges do we face in protecting and improving Earth’s biodiversity?
- What moral principles, goals, and virtues should guide our decisions for improving biodiversity?
To review the foundations and norms of Healing Earth’s environmental ethic, return to the Healing Earth Introduction.
To address the ethical challenges of Earth’s declining biodiversity, we return to the three foundations of Healing Earth’s environmental ethic:
- The natural world has intrinsic value.
- The natural world has instrumental value.
- Environmental sustainability balances nature’s intrinsic and instrumental values.
The primary ethical challenge we face in protecting and improving Earth’s biodiversity is human disregard for the intrinsic value of biodiversity. As you learned in the science section, biodiversity is essential to the well-being of Earth’s inhabitants and is the manifestation our planet’s incredible variety. These characteristics help us understand and respect the intrinsic value of biodiversity.
One small-scale Brazilian farmer clearing trees out of the Amazon to cultivate a bit more land is a slight intrusion on biodiversity. However, add up the deforestation of all the (mostly large-scale) farming operations in Brazil for the period August 2017-July 2018 and you arrive at 7,900 square kilometers (3,050 square miles) of cleared rainforest. That is not a slight intrusion on biodiversity. This is a destruction of biodiversity. Such 'utilization' is far from the morally correct understanding of biodiversity's instrumental value.
This is not to say that using land is always unethical. In fact, putting the instrumental value of land to use is essential for the well-being of life. Without using land, Earth’s plant, insect, animal, and human populations would cease to exist. Biodiversity enables the land to deliver the provisioning, supporting, cultural, and regulating services needed for life on Earth.
The Ecosystem Services chart shown in the science section (Figure 3) clearly outlines the use value of Earth’s natural resources.
You learned in the Healing Earth Introduction that the value of sustainability must guide how we approach the instrumental value of our planet’s natural resources. As applied to the relationship between biodiversity and land, sustainability requires that we make every effort to use land in a way that does not exceed the ability of the land’s accompanying ecosystem to maintain its diverse plant, insect, and animal life.
Intrinsic and instrumental value, along with the value of sustainability, are the moral foundations for the more specific ethical norms that guide us in our moral consideration of biodiversity. In Healing Earth's ethical framework, norms are expressed in three ways, as principles, goals, and virtues
Moral Principles and Biodiversity
The first moral principle in Healing Earth's environmental ethic is care for creation. But how do we know the proper way to practice this care? This question highlights the importance of environmental education. Most people do not understand how land use decisions can degrade Earth’s delicate ecological balance. With greater knowledge of biodiversity and its importance for life, more people would appreciate how land choices are moral choices. This is a necessary step toward creation care.
Because people often make land use decisions with a saleable economic product in mind, biodiversity education must extend beyond those who produce goods to those who consume good. Your athletic shoes, for example, are very likely made of leather that has been supplied by a Brazilian processor. This processor most likely gets the leather from a cattle rancher who raises cattle on a deforested section of the Amazon rainforest. This means that the type of athletic shoes you purchase is connected to the deforestation of the Amazon rainforest.
Similarly, the cosmetics you wear very likely contain palm oil, the extraction of which has accounted for the destruction of over 3.5 million hectares of forest in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua, New Guinea since 1990.1
Finding the material source of the products we buy can be very difficult. Fortunately, environmental groups have developed resources to help consumers make good choices. One example is ecomall.com. This website lists hundreds of businesses worldwide that sell everything from clothing and food to cleaning materials and health care products made in an ecologically safe and socially just manner. Another example is the Better World Shopping Guide that evaluates everyday products for their environmental, human rights, and social justice responsibility.
Ecolabels have also grown in recent years to help consumers determine the ‘ethical sourcing’ of a product. However, with over 400 different sustainability certifications and ecolabels around the world, it can be confusing to know which labels are reliable. Here is a list of some of the most well-known and trustworthy ecolabels. All of us committed to healing the Earth must help producers and consumers understand the intrinsic value of biodiversity and the impact their choices have on this essential element of the natural world.
Click here to see a video on the important relationship between human rights and biodiversity conservation.
Returning to the case study at the beginning of this chapter, we see that biodiversity ethics is also a matter of human rights. The Mirrar way of life depends on the diverse plant and animal varieties found in their Kakadu homeland. This is true of many of the approximately 370 million Indigenous People living in 70 countries worldwide. The right to life of Indigenous People is violated when their land and its biodiversity is degraded by deforestation, pollution, and animal poaching.
In Catholic social teaching, the common good is defined as “the sum total of those conditions of social life which allow social groups and their individual members relatively thorough and ready access to their own fulfillment.”2 Take a look at this excellent summary of the moral principle of the common good.
Human communities around the world differ in their agricultural practices, food habits, knowledge of local plants and seeds, and uses of natural resources for medicinal purposes. History has taught us that such knowledge has not only been a local good, but also a common good for the whole of humanity.
Indigenous People often do not hold legal deeds or titles to their ancestral lands. Rather, national states claim legal domain over lands within their borders. As states sell land to businesses and private citizens, these landowners in turn claim rights of private property and free trade to produce and sell whatever they choose from the land. In the process, Indigenous People are often marginalized to smaller, less productive sections of land.
Another moral principle pertaining to biodiversity is the preferential option for the poor. As Pavan Sukhdev et al. explain in their study “Biodiversity and Poverty,"
Because three quarters of the more than one billion people living on less than one dollar a day live in rural areas, the poor often depend on a wide range of natural resources and ecosystem services for their well-being, and are therefore potentially affected by their degradation.3
Over one billion people worldwide live day to day on natural resources drawn from forests, rivers, and lakes. People living in poverty depend on these resources for food, health, income, and cultural activities. The moral principle of the preferential option for the poor requires that land use decisions take special steps to protect biodiversity that enables poor people to survive.
Questions to Consider
Imagine you are a member of a town council that must vote on granting permission to a local business for expanding their production facilities. This expansion would create 100 new jobs at a time when your community has been declining due to unemployment and poverty. However, construction of the production facility would destroy the last natural habitat in your area for a rare and endangered bird species.
- How would you vote on this issue?
- How would the moral principles you have just studied shape your decision?
Follow the arguments in this real life conflict about this issue.
Finally, the principle of subsidiarity adds another moral perspective on the protection of biodiversity. Studies show that biodiversity is best cared for at the local level. The principle of subsidiarity posits that work should be done at the smallest social unit possible and that the larger units exist to serve the smaller ones. By locating decision-making power closer to the victims of biodiversity loss, it is believed that better decisions will be made for environmental protection.
Moral Goals and Biodiversity
Decisions that reduce deforestation and fragmentation, care for endangered species, guard against invasive species, and stop animal poaching move us toward the moral goal of protecting and preserving biological diversity.
There are many hopeful signs around the world of people imagining Earth with an enhanced biodiversity and acting to build what they imagine. One example is the creation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Nations around the world have created MPAs to preserve biodiversity within inland lakes and adjoining oceans and seas. For example, with 20% of the world’s coral reefs irreversibly damaged and the remaining 80% under high risk of destruction, nations with coral reefs in their waters such as Australia have established MPAs to protect these incredibly diverse natural structures. Although this is a hopeful activity, today’s MPA’s cover only about 1.17% of global ocean areas.
There are also organizations working to upgrade Earth’s biodiversity by protecting sacred natural sites and species throughout the world. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUNC) is one such organization. Among its several projects, IUNC identifies sites and species regarded as sacred by human cultures around the world. Recall the Mirrar people we studied at the beginning of the chapter. The plants, animals, lands, and waters of the Kakadu forest have had spiritual significance to the Mirrar for thousands of years — and this has protected its rich biodiversity.
Questions to Consider
Imagine you and your classmates want to clean up a row of vacant lots on the edge of town that are filled with garbage and overgrown with invasive weeds and shrubs. Even though this is a relatively small area of land, you want to do your part in increasing Earth’s biodiversity. You would like to apply for funds from your town council to buy tools, plants, and seeds. You have fifteen minutes at the next town council meeting to present your request. Outline and practice your presentation that explains how your project is valuable from both a scientific and ethical perspective.
Moral Virtues and Biodiversity
People tend to admire those who follow moral principles in pursuit of their goals. Such people often stand apart from the crowd, displaying character and virtue as they make sacrifices for what they believe is right. What are the virtues or character traits that make people like this admirable?
People who show gratitude for the enormous plentitude of life stand as models to those who take the Earth’s resources for granted. During her lifetime, the poet Emily Dickenson was better known as a gardener than a poet. She spent many hours in her garden where her sense of humility toward nature moved her to write many poems on this theme.
The skies can’t keep their secret!
They tell it to the hills—
The hills just tell the orchards—
And they the daffodils!
A bird, by chance, that goes that way
Soft overheard the whole.
If I should bribe the little bird,
Who knows but she would tell?
I think I won’t, however,
It’s finer not to know;
If summer were an axiom,
What sorcery had snow?
So keep your secret, Father!
I would not, if I could,
Know what the sapphire fellows do,
In your new-fashioned world!4
Dickenson’s gratitude elicits the virtue of generosity, the desire to 'give back' to nature for its gift of biodiversity.
People with courage are needed to challenge those who greedily pursue economic gain at the expense of Earth’s biodiversity. Larry Gibson was a man of courage. For over 30 years he protested coal company mountaintop removal around his native Kayford Mountain in West Virginia, U.S. He defied the coal companies by remaining in a cabin on top of the mountain. Coal mining supporters shot bullets into his cabin, killed two of his dogs, burned effigies of Larry in his yard, made threatening phone calls, and assaulted him physically. In 2012, Larry Gibson died of a heart attack still saving his mountain.
The moral correction for greed is the virtue of temperance, which counsels a person to preserve and protect biodiversity. The virtue of temperance calls forth the virtue of prudence. Prudence helps us make wise choices, such as in weighing the good of financial gain against the good of biodiversity.
As we consider choices such as these, we invariably ask ourselves what we value and what core commitments we want to honor. When we gather the courage to face moral choices rather than avoid them, we reach into our spiritual lives, just as human beings have for thousands of years. It is to this subject that we now turn.
Questions to Consider
Imagine, again, you are the leader of a plan you and your classmates have developed to restore land in your community. You are now preparing the presentation that you must give to the town council, requesting the funding you need to do this project.
- What moral virtues will you need to make this presentation?
- Do you feel you possess these virtues?
- What could you do to strengthen them in yourself and in your community?