Glossary

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Term Term description
ice cap

A thick layer of ice and snow at the north and south poles and atop high altitude mountains. Today ice caps covers fewer than 50,000 square kilometers (19,000 square miles) of land area.

ice caps

A thick layer of ice and snow at the north and south poles and atop high altitude mountains. Today ice caps covers fewer than 50,000 square kilometers (19,000 square miles) of land area.

ice fields

Ice fields are small expanses of ice, usually less than 50,000 square kilometers (19,300 square miles) in land area. An ice field's flow is also more strongly influenced by the underlying mountains and topography.

ice sheets

Glacial ice covering more than 50,000 square kilometers (19,000 square miles) of land area.

Ignatian Pedagogy

A way of learning and a method of teaching developed by the Roman Catholic Society of Jesus that emphasizes learning through a sequence of 'seeing', 'judging', reflecting', and 'acting'.

Ignatian Pedagogy

A way of learning and a method of teaching developed by the Roman Catholic Society of Jesus that emphasizes learning through a sequence of 'seeing', 'judging', reflecting', and 'acting'.

igneous rock

Rocks that are formed from the solidification of molten rock material.

impermeable layer

A layer of solid material, such as rock or clay or man-made impervious materials, which does not allow water to pass through to the ground below.

Indigenous People

Communities of human beings with distinct cultures linked to lands later colonized and settled by non-indigenous human groups.

 

Industrial revolution

The transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to between 1820 and 1840. This transition included progressing from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, and the development of machine tools. These changes were fueled by coal and fossil petroleum.

infrared radiation

Electromagnetic radiation emitted or reflected in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, with wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than radio waves.

instrumental value

Value in the use of an object to accomplish something.

insulator

A material that allows little or no heat, electricity, or sound to go into or out of something.

Integral Development

Community development that strives to make available the basic goods necessary for human, environmental, and social flourishing.

integral ecologists

People who bring to their appreciation and study of the natural world, scientific knowledge, ethical clarity, spiritual awareness, and a motivation to act for the well-being of nature and humanity.

interdisciplinary

Scholarly research or organization that involves the collaboration of  two or more academic fields of study.

interglacial periodicity

Periods between the Earth's glacial cycles.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the leading international scientific body for the assessment of climate change. It reviews and assesses the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change. It does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate related data or parameters.

International Common Good

The conditions of social life which allow people everywhere in the world a relatively thorough and ready access to the basic goods needed for their fulfillment.

International Union for Conservation of Nature

The world’s oldest and largest global environmental organization that helps the world find pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment and development challenges.

interstellar cloud

Patches of dense gas and dust in space, usually about 10,000 times more massive than the Sun, from which stars are believed to form. Particles in the cloud are attracted to each other, causing them to form smaller, rotating bodies, which may become stars.

intrinsic value

Value within an object itself.

invasive species

An organism that thrives in a new environment where it is not native, and can out-compete the native organisms, causing ecological and economic harm.

 

invertebrate

An animal that has no backbone or spinal column and therefore does not belong to the subphylum Vertebrata of the phylum Chordata. Most animals are invertebrates. Corals, insects, worms, jellyfish, starfish, and snails are invertebrates.

ions

Electrically charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons giving them either a positive (cation) or negative (anion) charge.

irrigation

The artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops.

Islam

The religious faith of Muslims, based on the words and religious system founded by the prophet Muhammad and taught by the Qur'an the basic principle of which is absolute submission to a unique and personal god, Allah.

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