The science section noted several human actions that are accelerating the decline of Earth’s biodiversity. Here is a review of some of those mentioned:

  • Extensive deforestation is destroying habitats that nurture the health and diversity of soils, plants, insects, and animals which are necessary for human life.
  • Intended and unintended human introduction of invasive species into natural habitats is breaking down the delicate species balance and diversity of healthy ecosystems.
  • Loss of forests due to expanding agriculture, mining, road building, and urbanization is increasing the rate and extent of global climate change.
  • Human induced habitat fragmentation and animal poaching is amplifying the extinction of plant, insect, and animal species.

A key indicator of biodiversity decline is the rate of species extinction, a rate far exceeding the pace of new plant, insect, and animal speciation. The main driver of this extinction rate is the choices human beings are making over land use.

Land use choices influence the well-being of the natural world as well as human society. In the Healing Earth Introduction, you learned that ethics is the study and practice of actions that contribute to the well-being of humans, human societies, and the natural world. Land use choices are moral choices. In this section, we explore the ethical challenges involving biodiversity. We begin by returning to the ethical questions posed in the Kakadu and the Mirrar case study that opened this chapter.

  • What ethical challenges do we face in protecting and improving Earth’s biodiversity?
  • What moral principles, goals, and virtues should guide our decisions for improving biodiversity?

Looking Back


To review the foundations and norms of Healing Earth’s environmental ethic, return to the Healing Earth Introduction.

To address the ethical challenges of Earth’s declining biodiversity, we return to the three foundations of Healing Earth’s environmental ethic:

  • The natural world has intrinsic value.
  • The natural world has instrumental value.
  • The value of environmental sustainability balances nature’s intrinsic and instrumental values.

The primary ethical challenge we face in protecting and improving Earth’s biodiversity is human disregard for the intrinsic value of biodiversity. As you learned in the science section, biodiversity is essential to the well-being of Earth’s inhabitants and is the manifestation our planet’s incredible variety. These characteristics help us understand and respect the intrinsic value of biodiversity.

Closer Look


Using a ‘Biodiversity Barometer’, the Union for Ethical BioTrade surveyed consumers in 16 representative countries around the world and found that 81% of consumers are concerned with the impact on biodiversity. Click here to read more about the Biodiversity Barometer.

One small-scale Brazilian farmer clearing trees out of the Amazon to cultivate a bit more land is only a slight intrusion on biodiversity. However, add up the deforestation of all the (mostly large-scale) farming operations in Brazil for the period August 2017-July 2018 and you arrive at 7,900 square kilometers (3,050 square miles) of cleared rainforest. 1 That is a significant destruction of biodiversity, a ‘utilization’ of natural resources that violates a morally correct understanding of instrumental value.

This is not to say that using land is always unethical. In fact, putting the instrumental value of land to use is essential for the well-being of life. Without using land, Earth’s plant, insect, animal, and human populations would cease to exist. Biodiversity enables the land to deliver the provisioning, supporting, cultural, and regulating services needed for life on Earth.

Looking Back


The Ecosystem Services chart shown in the science section (Figure 3) clearly outlines the use value of Earth’s natural resources.

You learned in the Healing Earth Introduction that the value of sustainability must guide how we approach the instrumental value of our planet’s natural resources. As applied to the relationship between biodiversity and land, sustainability requires that we make every effort to use land in a way that does not exceed the ability of the land’s accompanying ecosystem to maintain its diverse plant, insect, and animal life.

Intrinsic and instrumental value, along with the value of sustainability, are the moral foundations for the more specific ethical norms that guide us in our moral consideration of biodiversity. In Healing Earth’s ethical framework, norms are expressed in three ways, as principles, goals, and virtues.

Moral Principles and Biodiversity

The first moral principle in Healing Earth’s environmental ethic is care for creation. But how do we know the proper way to practice this care? This question highlights the importance of environmental education. Most people do not understand how land use decisions can degrade Earth’s delicate ecological balance. With greater knowledge of biodiversity and its importance for life, more people would appreciate how land choices are moral choices. This is a necessary step toward creation care.

palm oil in cosmetics
Palm oil is found in everything from fuel, food, and household products, to cosmetics. It is estimated that one in ten products on super- market shelves around the world contain palm oil, with only a small percentage coming from a sustainable source. Read more about this at the Deforestation Information website. 3

Because people often make land use decisions with a saleable economic product in mind, biodiversity education must extend beyond those who produce goods to those who consume good. Your athletic shoes, for example, are very likely made of leather that has been supplied by a Brazilian processor. This processor most likely gets the leather from a cattle rancher who raises cattle on a deforested section of the Amazon rainforest. This means that the type of athletic shoes you purchase is connected to the deforestation of the Amazon rainforest.

Similarly, the cosmetics you wear very likely contain palm oil, the extraction of which has accounted for the destruction of over 3.5 million hectares of forest in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua, New Guinea since 1990. 2

eco lable
The EKOenergy label is one among hundreds of ecolabels that exist today to raise awareness of environmental issues. 4

Finding the material source of the products we buy can be very difficult. Fortunately, environmental groups have developed resources to help consumers make good choices. One example is This website lists hundreds of businesses worldwide that sell everything from clothing and food to cleaning materials and health care products made in an ecologically safe and socially just manner. Another example is the Better World Shopping Guide that evaluates everyday products for their environmental, human rights, and social justice responsibility.

Ecolabels have also grown in recent years to help consumers determine the ‘ethical sourcing’ of a product. However, with over 400 different sustainability certifications and ecolabels around the world, it can be confusing to know which labels are reliable. Here is a list of some of the most well-known and trustworthy ecolabels. All of us committed to healing the Earth must help producers and consumers understand the intrinsic value of biodiversity and the impact their choices have on this essential element of the natural world.

Closer Look


Click here to see a video on the important relationship between human rights and biodiversity conservation.

Returning to the case study at the beginning of this chapter, we see that biodiversity ethics is also a matter of human rights. The Mirrar way of life depends on the diverse plant and animal varieties found in their Kakadu homeland. This is true of many of the approximately 370 million Indigenous People living in 70 countries worldwide. The right to life of Indigenous People is violated when their land and its biodiversity is degraded by deforestation, pollution, and animal poaching.

Closer Look


In Catholic social teaching, the common good is defined as “the sum total of those conditions of social life which allow social groups and their individual members relatively thorough and ready access to their own fulfillment”. Take a look at this excellent summary of the moral principle of the common good.

Human communities around the world differ in their agricultural practices, food habits, knowledge of local plants and seeds, and uses of natural resources for medicinal purposes. History has taught us that such knowledge has not only been a local good, but also a common good for the whole of humanity.

For example, quinine is an ancient remedy for malaria used around the world. It comes from the bark of the cinchona tree in the tropical Andes forests of Western South America. It is estimated that the native Quechua Indians of Peru used quinine for malaria long before it was ‘discovered’ by Jesuit missionaries in the 17th century. Sometimes known as “Jesuit Bark,” quinine was a local good that came to serve the common good.

engraving of native offering vard to science
A 17th century engraving depicting a Peruvian native offering cinchona bark to a representation of European science. 5

This is an example of how important it is for the common good of all to protect local communities that depend on biodiversity for their survival and have intimate knowledge of the plant and animal life within their environment. The survival of one depends on the survival of the other. Destroy the community that protects the natural diversity on which its life depends and you degrade Earth’s biodiversity. Destroy the natural diversity on which the life of a community depends and you degrade the diversity of human cultures.

Indigenous People often do not hold legal deeds or titles to their ancestral lands. Rather, national states claim legal domain over lands within their borders. As states sell land to businesses and private citizens, these landowners in turn claim rights of private property and free trade to produce and sell whatever they choose from the land. In the process, Indigenous People are often marginalized to smaller, less productive sections of land.

The Healing Earth environmental ethic takes an alternative view on private possession of natural resources. The right to private property is not absolute; rather, it is linked – like all rights – to human responsibility. The moral validity of the right to private property depends upon the exercise of this right in a manner that respects biodiversity.

private ownership
Biodiversity is threatened when private property is considered an absolute right. The sign reads “Eviction Notice: New Address To Be Considered” 8

Private ownership of land also runs up against the moral principle of the universal destination of goods. This moral principle holds that the availability, or ‘destination’, of goods necessary for life is ‘universal’; that is, basic goods such as land, water, food, and air should not be used by one in ways that destroy the resource or threaten the survival of others. According to the universal destination of goods, land use that destroys biodiversity cannot be morally justified by an appeal to the rights of private property and free trade. In fact, it is quite the opposite: landowners themselves violate the rights of private property and free trade when they exercise responsible actions that destroy or threaten biodiversity or human communities dependent on it.

Another moral principle pertaining to biodiversity is the preferential option for the poor. As Pavan Sukhdev et al. explain in their study “Biodiversity and Poverty,”

Because three quarters of the more than one billion people living on less than one dollar a day live in rural areas, the poor often depend on a wide range of natural resources and ecosystem services for their well-being, and are therefore potentially affected by their degradation. 6

Over one billion people worldwide live day to day on natural resources drawn from forests, rivers, and lakes. People living in poverty depend on these resources for food, health, income, and cultural activities. The moral principle of the preferential option for the poor requires that land use decisions take special steps to protect biodiversity that enables poor people to survive.

The principle of subsidiarity adds another moral perspective on the protection of biodiversity. This principle posits that work should be done at the smallest social unit possible and that the larger units exist to serve the smaller ones. By locating decision-making power closer to the victims of biodiversity loss, it is believed that the chance of getting positive decision for biodiversity will increase. 7

Moral Goals and Biodiversity

Decisions that reduce deforestation, care for endangered species, guard against invasive species, and stop animal poaching and biopiracy move us toward the moral goal to protect and preserve biological diversity.
marine protected areas
The major Marine Protected Areas in the world’s oceans. 9

There are many hopeful signs around the world of people imagining Earth with an enhanced biodiversity and acting to build what they imagine. One example is the creation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Nations around the world have created MPAs to preserve biodiversity within inland lakes and adjoining oceans and seas. For example, with 20% of the world’s coral reefs irreversibly damaged and the remaining 80% under high risk of destruction, nations with coral reefs in their waters such as Australia have established MPAs to protect these incredibly diverse natural structures. Although this is a hopeful activity, today’s MPA’s cover only about 1.17% of global ocean areas.

There are also organizations working to upgrade Earth’s biodiversity by protecting sacred natural sites and species throughout the world. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUNC) is one such organization. Among its several projects, IUNC identifies sites and species regarded as sacred by human cultures around the world. Recall the Mirrar people we studied at the beginning of the chapter. The plants, animals, lands, and waters of the Kakadu forest have had spiritual significance to the Mirrar for thousands of years – and this has protected its rich biodiversity.

Questions to Consider

Imagine you and your classmates want to clean up a row of vacant lots on the edge of town that are filled with garbage and overgrown with invasive weeds and shrubs. Even though this is a relatively small area of land, you want to do your part in increasing Earth’s biodiversity. You would like to apply for funds from your town council to buy tools, plants, and seeds. You have fifteen minutes at the next town council meeting to present your request. Outline and practice your presentation that explains how your project is valuable from both a scientific and ethical perspective.

Moral Virtues and Biodiversity

People tend to admire those who follow moral principles in pursuit of their goals. Such people often stand apart from the crowd, displaying character and virtue as they make sacrifices for what they believe is right. What are the virtues or character traits that make people like this admirable?

Inspired People

Larry Gibson2

Larry Gibson was a man of courage. For over 30 years he protested coal company mountaintop removal around his native Kayford Mountain in West Virginia, U.S. He defied the coal companies by remaining in his cabin on top of the mountain. Coal mining supporters shot bullets into his cabin, killed two of his dogs, burned effigies of Larry in his yard, made threatening phone calls, and assaulted him physically. In 2012, Larry Gibson died of a heart attack still saving his mountain. Listen to Larry Gibson tell his courageous story.

People who show gratitude for the enormous plentitude of life stand as an example for those who take the Earth’s resources for granted, using more than necessary and showing no appreciation. People with courage are needed to challenge those who greedily pursue economic gain at the expense of Earth’s biodiversity. The moral correction for greed is temperance that counsels one to pursue sustainable economic development, a form of development that preserves and protects biodiversity.

The virtue of temperance is linked to generosity. A person with generosity illustrates humility and realizes how much is yet to beknown about the complex workings of nature that enables our planet’s life-giving diversity. Humility encourages an attitude of authentic human fairness in partnership with – not domination of – nature.

During her lifetime, the famous poet Emily Dickenson was better known as a gardener than a poet. She spent many hours in her garden where her sense of humility toward nature moved her to write many poems on this theme.

The skies can’t keep their secret!
They tell it to the hills—
The hills just tell the orchards—
And they the daffodils!

A bird, by chance, that goes that way
Soft overheard the whole.
If I should bribe the little bird,
Who knows but she would tell?

I think I won’t, however,
It’s finer not to know;
If summer were an axiom,
What sorcery had snow?

So keep your secret, Father!
I would not, if I could,
Know what the sapphire fellows do,
In your new-fashioned world! 10

As Dickinson’s poem reflects, realizing our co-dependence with nature elicits a sense of gratitude for and generosity toward the natural world. Both virtues are important for the work of healing Earth’s wounded biodiversity.

Temperance, humility, gratitude and generosity encourage prudence when making land choices where the goods of financial gain and biodiversity must be weighed against one another. The goal is to bring about justice between the reasonable needs of human society and the environmental needs of our planet, and become people of justice in the process.

We face a serious ethical challenge today in protecting and preserving Earth’s biodiversity. The principles, goals, and virtues we have discussed in this section help us think through the moral choices that confront us.

As we consider these choices, we invariably ask ourselves what we value and what core commitments truly engage our inner depths. When we gather the courage to face moral choices rather than avoid them, we reach into our spiritual lives, just as human beings have for thousands of years. It is to this subject that we now turn.

Questions to Consider

Imagine, again, you are the leader of a plan you and your classmates have developed to restore land in your community. You are now preparing the presentation that you must give to the town council, requesting the funding you need to do this project. What moral virtues will you need to make this presentation? Do you feel you possess these virtues? What could you do to strengthen them?